Budget Impact – Individuals
28 Oct 2021
Income tax rates and allowances for 2022/23
As announced at the March 2021 Budget, the personal allowance will remain at its 2021/22 level of £12,570 for 2022/23, with the allowance being reduced by £1 for every £2 by which income exceeds £100,000. This means that if your income is more than £125,140 you will not receive a personal allowance for 2022/23. You may wish to consider making pension contributions or gift aid donations to preserve your personal allowance and avoid paying tax at the high marginal rate of 60% that applies on income between £100,000 and £125,140.
The rates of income tax remain unchanged, with the basic rate staying at 20%, the higher rate at 40% and the additional rate at 45%. The basic rate band remains at £37,700. The additional rate of 45% will continue to apply to taxable income of more than £150,000.
The freezing of the thresholds may mean that if your income keeps pace with inflation, you may move into a higher tax band and pay tax at a higher marginal rate.
The married couple's allowance, available where at least one spouse or civil partner was born before 6 April 1935, is increased to £9,415. The income limit, above which the allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 by which income exceeds the limit until the minimum amount of the allowance is reached, is set at £31,400. The minimum amount of the married couple's allowance increases to £3,640 for 2022/23.
The rates and thresholds applying in Scotland to the non-savings non-dividend income of Scottish taxpayers will be announced in the Scottish Budget on 9 December.
National Insurance increases
As part of the Government's plan for health and social care funding, the rates of Class 1 and Class 4 National Insurance contributions are increased by 1.25% for 2022/23 only. This means that the main primary rate payable by employees will be 13.25% and the additional primary rate will be 3.25%, while the main rate of Class 4 contributions payable by the self-employed will be 9.25% and the additional Class 4 rate will be 3.25%. The rates payable by employers (secondary Class 1, Class 1A and Class 1B) are also increased by 1.25% for 2022/23, to 15.05%. The rates will revert to their 2021/22 levels from 6 April 2023 when the new Health and Social Care Levy comes into effect.
The upper earnings limit for primary Class 1 purposes (and the associated upper secondary thresholds) and the upper profits limit for Class 4 remain frozen at £967 per week (£4,189 per month, £50,270 per year) for 2022/23. The other thresholds are increased in line with inflation. As a result, the lower earnings limit increases to £153 per week, the primary threshold increases to £190 per week and the secondary threshold increases to £175 per week. A new secondary threshold for Freeport employees of £481 per week applies from 6 April 2022.
The increases in the National Insurance rates and changes to the thresholds will affect your take home pay. If you operate your business through a personal or family company, they will also impact on your profit extraction strategy.
We can help you determine your optimal salary level for 2022/23 and re-examine your remuneration strategy based on this and other Budget changes.
The rate of Class 2 National Insurance, payable by the self-employed, is increased to £3.15 per week for 2022/23 and the small profits threshold rises to £6,725. The rate of voluntary Class 3 National Insurance contributions rises to £15.85 per week for 2022/23.
Health and Social Care Levy
A new levy, the Health and Social Care Levy, will apply from 6 April 2023. The funds raised for the levy will be ring-fenced to meet health and adult social care costs. Payment of the levy is linked to earnings on which a qualifying National Insurance contribution is payable. This is a Class 1 (employee's and employer's) contribution, a Class 1A contribution, a Class 1B contribution and a Class 4 contribution. The levy is payable at the rate of 1.25% on the earnings on which a National Insurance contribution would be due.
However, unlike National Insurance contributions, an individual's liability to pay the Health and Social Care Levy does not come to an end when the individual reaches state pension age.
Associated changes mean that from October 2023, a cap is introduced on the amount that an eligible person will have to contribute to the costs of personal care over their lifetime. This is to be set at £86,000.
We can advise on the impact of the Levy and what the costs cap will mean for you.
Dividend tax increases
As part of the funding plan for health and social care, dividend tax rates are similarly increased by 1.25% from 6 April 2022.
Anyone who operates their business through a personal or family company and extracts profits in the form of a small salary plus dividends will typically pay little or no National Insurance. As the Health and Social Care Levy is linked to National Insurance contributions, where this low salary strategy is adopted, they will either not pay the levy or pay it at a low rate. To address this and to ensure those operating through a personal or family company contribute towards health and social care costs, dividend tax rates are increased by the amount of the levy.
From 6 April 2022, the ordinary dividend tax rate will be 8.75% (currently 7.5%), the upper dividend tax rate will be 33.75% (currently 32.5%) and the higher dividend tax rate will be 39.35% (currently 38.1%).
The increase in the dividend tax rates will also impact on your profit extraction strategy. As the increase does not come into effect until 6 April 2022, it may be useful to review your dividend policy for 2021/22 to decide whether it is worth taking more dividends in 2021/22 to take advantage of the current, lower, rates. Whether this is beneficial will depend on your personal circumstances. We can help you decide.
The increases in the dividend tax rates will also affect you if you receive dividends from investments in shares.
Increase in the minimum pension age
The normal minimum pension age (NMPA) is the age at which most pension savers can access their pensions without incurring an unauthorised pension tax charge (unless they take their pension earlier due to ill-health). Registered pension schemes cannot normally pay benefits to members until they reach the NMPA (except in the case of ill-health).
The NMPA is to increase from 55 to 57 from 6 April 2028.
The change will affect you if you were born on or after 6 April 1973. If affected, you will need to wait until age 57 to access pension benefits without suffering an unauthorised payments charge (unless the scheme has a protected pension age). This will need to be considered in your ongoing retirement planning.
If you were co-ordinating your business exit planning with your 55th birthday, this will also need to be rescheduled.
Contact us to discuss what this change may mean for you.
Longer payment and reporting window for residential capital gains
If you sell a property that has not been your main residence throughout the period that you have owned it, for example, an investment property or a second home, you will have to pay capital gains tax if the chargeable gain exceeds your available annual exempt amount. The tax is payable at the residential rates of 18% where income and gains fall within the basic rate limit and at 28% once this has been used up.
The time limit for reporting residential capital gains and making a payment on account of the tax due is increased from 30 days to 60 days from Budget Day (27 October 2021).
If you have recently disposed of a residential property which has not been your main home throughout, we can help you.
We Can Help
To understand more regarding how the Budget could have affected your personal affairs, please contact us to arrange an appropriate time to discuss your personal circumstances. Call us on 01753 888211 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.